Last edited by Kazratilar
Friday, July 31, 2020 | History

2 edition of Body composition analysis and lactation in black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos horribilis) found in the catalog.

Body composition analysis and lactation in black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos horribilis)

Sean David Farley

Body composition analysis and lactation in black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos horribilis)

by Sean David Farley

  • 289 Want to read
  • 36 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Black bear -- Composition.,
  • Grizzly bear -- Composition.,
  • Black bear -- Nutrition.,
  • Grizzly bear -- Nutrition.,
  • Lactation.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Sean David Farley.
    The Physical Object
    Paginationx, 72 leaves, bound :
    Number of Pages72
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14708880M

    We evaluated the stored body fat of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) killed as nuisances in Gifu and Fukushima prefectures, Japan, during – We employed femur marrow fat (FMF), modified kidney fat index (mKFI), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) as indices for quantitative evaluation. We examined the basic characteristics of these indices, such as seasonality, . body composition and reproduction. We used palpation for bone prominence and measurement of skin-fold thickness to assign body condition scores to black bears. Body mass, total length, bone prominence, and skin-fold thickness all were positively correlated, but the latter 2 condition scores were more independent of body length than was mass.

    The nutritional demands imposed by lactation were estimated from data on volume and composition of milk produced by healthy, successfully lactating women, as done in Recommended Dietary Allowances (NRC, ). When it was feasible, evidence relating to possible depletion of maternal stores or to a decrease in the specific nutrient content of. An animal's body condition provides insight into its health, foraging success, and overall fitness. Measures of body composition including proportional fat content are useful indicators of condition. Isotopic dilution is a reliable non-destructive method for estimating the body composition of live mammals, but can require prolonged handling times. Alternatively, bioelectrical impedance.

      The risk of infanticide may alter foraging decisions made by females, which otherwise would have been based on nutritional requirements and forage quality and availability. In systems where meat resources are spatially aggregated in late summer and fall, female brown bears (Ursus arctos) would be faced with a trade-off situation. The need of reproductive females to accumulate adequate . Bears have large bodies, stocky legs, a long snout, shaggy hair, paws with claws, and a short tail. Even though bears are big and heavy, they can run very fast and are also good at climbing and swimming. Bears have a large brain and are one of the more intelligent mammals. Bears take a long sleep in the winter similar to hibernation.


Share this book
You might also like
Crimes without passion

Crimes without passion

Ormond Methodists

Ormond Methodists

Britain, in and out of Europe

Britain, in and out of Europe

Medicinal plants of Nepal Himalaya

Medicinal plants of Nepal Himalaya

Earth science in action.

Earth science in action.

For the curious young gentlemen and ladies that study and practice the noble and commendable art of drawing, colouring and japanning

For the curious young gentlemen and ladies that study and practice the noble and commendable art of drawing, colouring and japanning

Opinion on the Constitutional Validity of the Proposed Canada Water Act.

Opinion on the Constitutional Validity of the Proposed Canada Water Act.

Staff report on public authorities under New York State, March 21, 1956.

Staff report on public authorities under New York State, March 21, 1956.

Handbook of mammographic x-ray spectra

Handbook of mammographic x-ray spectra

The $50 home makeover

The $50 home makeover

Moses his choice

Moses his choice

Design

Design

Body composition analysis and lactation in black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos horribilis) by Sean David Farley Download PDF EPUB FB2

Milk composition and intake, cub growth, and mass loss of hibernating lactating and nonlactating American black bears (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were investigated.

Except for ash content, milk composition was similar between species. Lipid content varied only slightly throughout lactation, whereas carbohydrate content increased from 1 to 3% during hibernation before decreasing to less than % at the end of by: The measurement of body composition in black bears (Ursus americanus), brown bears (U.

arctos), and polar bears (U. maritimus) was investigated by means of isotopic water dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).Cited by:   Abstract. In black bears the last 6–8 weeks of gestation and the first 10–12 weeks of lactation occur in winter while the mother is in a dormant state, and reportedly does not eat, drink, urinate or defaecate.

Measurements were made of the body composition and organ weights of cubs, of the composition of milk, and of milk intake (by dilution of 2 H 2 O), in the first 3 months after by: Based on laboratory studies, much of the energy required to support metabolism and lactation during denning in black bears comes from lipid reserves.

These lipid reserves are mobilized and the most. Neonatal nutrition: Milk intake: Body composition: Black bears The small size of the newborn bear in relation to the size of the mother (about has long been regarded as remarkable.

Change in body weight of mothers and neonates and in milk composition during denning period in captive Japanese black bears() Ruriko Iibuchi 1),Noriko Nakano 2),Tadashi Nakamura 3),Tadasu Urashima 3), Michito Shimozuru 1),Tetsuma Murase 2)and Toshio Tsubota 1,*) 1)Laboratory of Wildlife Biology,Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences,Graduate School of.

In the black bear (Ursus americanus), the first mon of milk secretion occur while the female is fasting and mobilizing body lipid stores. Subsequently, the lactating female emerges from the den with her cubs and begins to feed on an omnivorous diet during the next months of lactation {15,16}.

Some interspecific aspects of body composition in mammals. In: Body Composition in Animals and Man. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, pp. 45 – (Body weights by personal communication from the late W.A. Calder.). Body composition and live animal measurements of Holstein–Friesian lactating dairy cows (n = ) were obtained from a large herd to represent a range of animal factors including parity, live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), milk yield and stage of animal measurements were recorded 3 or 4 days prior to slaughter, including LW, BCS, milk yield, heart girth.

This research program has focused on a comparison of grizzlies and black bears to understand the ecological conditions that favor one species over the other. Areas studied thus far include digestive efficiency, lactation, hibernation, body composition and growth, food habits, and foraging efficiency.

Body mass of reproductive female black bears in the present study was about 50% greater than mass of nonreproductive females. This is similar to values reported in other field studies on black bears (Samson and Huot ) and polar bears (Atkinson and Ramsay ).

But brown bears do not show this distinction (Hilderbrand et al. The. Berries are important foods throughout the black bear range. The most commonly eaten berries in northeastern Minnesota are sarsaparilla berries, juneberries, cherries, dogwood berries, blueberries, and raspberries.

The stocky body that gives black bears strength and minimizes heat loss makes them a poor predator. Scat Analysis For. For the same length of hibernation, lactating bears needed ∼3% more body fat than non-lactating bears to sustain the ‘cheapest’ reproductive strategy (i.e.

lactation of 60 days and 1 cub). As the number of cubs increased from one to two or the length of lactation increased from 60 to 74 days, an additional 2% body fat content was required. 4 MILKING and LACTATION Understanding Lactation Lactation is the period of time that a mother secretes milk from her mammary glands.

The lactation cycle is the period between one calving and the next. The cycle is split into phases; the early, mid lactation, late lactation and the dry period. In an ideal world, cows calve every twelve months. Lactation, secretion and yielding of milk by females after giving birth.

The milk is produced by the mammary glands, which are contained within the breasts. Pituitary hormones play a central role in lactation. Learn more about the biology and mechanism of lactation. Cub mass of twins and triplets increased curvilinearly as lactation progressed ().Cub mass and litter mass of twins at either 90 days of age or on 1 April were highest when maternal body fat content was high at the start of 90 days, male cubs in sets of twins ( ± kg) did not differ in mass from female cubs ( ± kg; F 1,17 =P = ).

The body composition of captured bears was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and/or isotopic dilution according to Farley and Robbins ().

When possible, both methods were performed as this results in the most accurate measure of body composition (Hilderbrand et. Seasonal alternation impacts the composition of gut microbiota in wild and free-ranging bears, but little is known concerning captive bears.

In this study, we investigated the effects of seasonal changes on gut microbiota in captive Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Fecal samples of thirteen adult and young were collected at a bile farm. On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition of healthy mothers and the outcomes of lactation.

Of widest interest are the committee's clear-cut recommendations for mothers and health care providers. Introduction. The composition of mammalian milks and the duration of lactation vary dramatically from species to species, influenced by the ecology, evolutionary history, placental type and the developmental state of the neonate at birth [1–3].Marsupials have extremely altricial neonates and much longer lactation periods than do eutherians of similar body size and ecology, indicative of.

during lactation. Black bears typically breed every second year, but all individuals feed and fatten intensively in the fall, prior to denning. Pregnant females generally give birth and begin lactating in mid-January, 2–4 months prior to emergence from the den with their cubs in late spring (Alt ).

While in the den, females rely on body fat, stored. Information on fatty acid (FA) profile is critical for the production and promotion of sheep milk and derivative dairy products. The presence of the essential ω-3 and ω-6 FA in milk fat as well as other less common FA, like linoleic acid isomers, has gained an increasing interest due to the consumer demand for a healthy diet.

This research assesses the FA profile and estimates the lipid. For example, studies have examined changes in body composition between lactating and non-lactating black bears during hibernation to assess daily energy requirements and sources of these energy components (i.e., BF or protein; Farley and Robbins, ; Harlow et al., ).